"view image" to enlarge
decoration was begun with (1) the mosaics in the naos, then
continued with (2) the mosaic narratives in the narthexes, concluding
with (3) the frescoes of the parecclesion.
Camii | Pictorial Decoration: Sequence & Style
The artistic style of the mosaics and frescoes reveal a well
defined canon of taste. In compositions, decoration is used
to join otherwise disparate elements, adjusting to fit irregular
spaces. The architectural backdrops are like stage sets, replete
with draperies, shrubbery, and incidental details. The tendency
is toward the disintegration of the composition; equilibrium
is replaced by asymmetry, instability, and unrest. Figures have
contorted postures, and sometimes seem to fly, their draperies
fluttering in lively arabesques.
In part, the mannered style was a response to the architecture.
Fitting the narrative scenes onto the domical vaults and pendentives
(the triangular corners joining the vault to the arches) encouraged
the distortion of the composition, as in the inner narthex.
The compositions are based on the accumulation of details, and
the whole is held together by a decorative veneer. Individual
figures are seen in unusual postures and from different viewpoints;
they were probably derived from a variety of sources, including
here for an interactive groundplan keyed to images of the pictorial
The naos preserves a few mosaics. The vaults and upper walls
were probably decorated with the major scenes from the lives
of Christ and the Virgin, the so-called Dodekaorton or Feast
Cycle, as was standard in a Byzantine church, along with a bust
of Christ in the dome and the Virgin enthroned in the apse.
To the left and right of the sanctuary are framed mosaic icons
of Christ and the Virgin, who are shown in pendant images throughout
the building. Christ's inscription is only partially preserved
but originally read as "Dwelling-place (chora) of the Living."
The Virgin is inscribed "Dwelling-place (chora) of the Uncontainable."
Both play on the name of the monastery, Chora, giving it a mystical
meaning as appellations of the Virgin and Christ.
The only remaining part of this decorative program is the Koimesis,
or Dormition of the Virgin, above the western entrance. Following
a common Byzantine iconography, the Virgin lies on a funeral
bier and is surrounded by the Apostles and other mourners. Behind
her is Christ, who has descended in a blaze of glory to carry
her soulrepresented as a swaddled infantup to heaven.
Christ is garbed in gilded drapery, surrounded by a mandorla
filled with elegant grisaille angels.
Narthexes: Dedicatory Images and Domes
Christ Pantokrator (or Judge of All) above the door to the inner
narthex. The inscription reads "Jesus Christ, Dwelling-Place
of the Living."
Virgin Blachernitissa, above the main entrance. She is inscribed
"Mother of God, Dwelling-Place (or Container) of the Uncontainable."
This particular type of the Virgin is sometimes called a Blachernitissa,
as it was apparently modeled on a venerated icon housed in the
nearby church of the Blachernae.
Inner Narthex: Christ and the Virgin
Enthroned Christ and the Donor Theodore Metochites, above the
entrance to the naos. Metochites kneels and presents a model
of the church to a seated Christ. In Byzantine art, this was
the standard way of representing an architectural donation.
Metochites is ostentatiously garbed and wears a high hat symbolizing
his high office and his court titles are inscribed behind him.
Deesis mosaic, to the right, which shows Christ and the Virgin
with two previous benefactors of the monastery kneeling at their
feet. The Virgin gestures to Christ in intercession for the
Bust of Christ, and the genealogy of Christ beginning with Adam,
in the south dome. Domes covered with mosaic, like those of
the inner narthex, are pumpkin domes with undulating, faceted
surfaces. The result is multiple curves that capture the light
from many angles, creating a shimmering surface and suffusing
the interior with a golden glow.
Bust of the Virgin, surrounded by the royal ancestry, in the
Sts. Peter and Paul, flanking the door to the naos.
Inner Narthex: Cycle of the Life of the
The narthexes are decorated with cycles of the lives of the
Virgin and Christ. Both begin at the northern end, with thematic
and visual references linking the two cycles. Three bays of
the inner narthex are devoted to the story of the Virgin, from
miraculous birth to miraculous pregnancy. The unfamiliar subject
is based on the Protevangelium, or Apocryphal Gospel of St.
James, which was widely accepted during the Middle Ages.
Joachim's Offerings Rejected, in the northwest pendentive below
the dome. The bearded priest Zaccharias is shown praying in
the Temple, which looks much like the sanctuary of a Byzantine
Joachim in the Wilderness, in the southeast pendentive. A forlorn
Joachim contemplates his misfortune.
The Annunciation to St. Anne, in the partially preserved lunette
below. As she prays in the garden, an angel announces to Anne
that she will bear a child.
The Meeting at the Golden Gate, on the arch between the first
two bays. A happy Joachim meets and embraces Anne at the gate
of Jerusalem. The scene is inscribed "The Conception of the
Theotokos" ("Bearer of God").
The Birth of the Virgin, in the lunette of the second bay. Anne
reclines on a bed, attended by servants who prepare a bath for
the infant Virgin Mary. Joachim peers timidly through the doorway.
The Nativity of Christ is very similar in composition and is
in the same position in the outer narthex.
The First Seven Steps of the Virgin, on the arch between the
second and third bays. The Virgin surprises her mother by walking
at six months; Anne subsequently vows that her daughter shall
be raised in the Temple.
The Virgin is Blessed by the Priests, in the vault above, on
the western side. Joachim carries the child, his hands covered,
as if bearing a sacred object. Throughout the cycle, the Virgin
is represented as a tiny adult, always dressed in a blue robe.
The Virgin Caressed by Her Parents, in the same vault on the
eastern side. The architectural backdrops of the two scenes
are oddly contorted to fit the curved surface of the vault.
The Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, in the vault of
the central bay. The Virgin Mary is given to be raised in the
Temple at the age of three. She is shown again in the same panel,
seated inside the Holy of Holies, where she is fed manna by
The Virgin Fed by an Angel, in the adjacent arch. The Temple
resembles a Byzantine church sanctuary, with the Virgin seated
on the altar, below a canopy.
The Instruction of the Virgin in the Temple (damaged), on the
opposite haunch of the same arch. Its composition was similar
to the previous scene.
The Virgin Receiving a Skein of Purple Wool, In the west lunette
of the central bay. The Virgin is presented with wool, symbolizing
her purity, with which she is to weave the veil of the Temple.
Zaccharias Praying before the Rods of the Suitors, on the arch
between bays two and three. The high priest is shown praying
over the twelve rods presented by the Virgin's suitors. When
the Virgin was twelve years old, the priests decided she should
leave the Temple. Zaccharias was instructed by an angel to select
a husband for her from among the widowers. According to the
angel's instructions, each suitor presented a rod, which was
left in the Holy of Holies overnight. The rod belonging to the
old man Joseph miraculously blossomed.
The Virgin Entrusted to Joseph, in the west lunette of the second
bay. The couple's age difference is emphasized, as the high
priest, holding the flowering rod, presents the Virgin to Joseph,
with the other suitors watching.
Joseph Taking the Virgin to His House, In the arch between the
second and first bays. Accompanied by one of his sons, Joseph
leads the Virgin. Here Joseph is one of the artist's experiments,
a composite figure probably created from two different sketchbook
models. Is he coming or going?
The Annunciation to the Virgin at the Well, In the southwest
pendentive of the first bay. An angel announces to the Virgin
that she will give birth. The drama is emphasized by the position
of the Virgin, who seems to be flying.
Joseph Taking His Leave of the Virgin, in the lunette of the
Joseph Reproaching the Virgin, in lunette of the first bay,
when he returns from his trip to find his wife with child. These
scenes offer interesting parallels to the story of Joachim and
Anne, with which the cycle began. Both Anne and the Virgin Mary
are blessed with miraculous conceptions.
This leaves the cycle of the Virgin unresolved, but the story
continues in the outer narthex with the cycle of the Infancy
The Outer Narthex: Cycle of the Infancy
The cycle of the Infancy of Christ is represented in the lunettes,
while the domical vaults are decorated with scenes of the ministry
of Christ. Both are based on the Gospels and begin in the north
Joseph Dreaming, in the lunette on the north wall. While asleep,
he is informed by an angel of the truth concerning the Virgin's
pregnancy, thus providing a resolution to the final scene in
the inner narthex. Behind Joseph is The Virgin and Two Companions,
engaged in conversation outside Nazareth. To the right, the
holy couple begins The Journey to Bethlehem, to be enrolled
in the Roman census.
The Enrollment for Taxation, in the first lunette of the east
wall. In this unique scene, the Virgin and Joseph appear before
an enthroned tax collector, who wears the regalia of a Byzantine
The Nativity, in the second lunette, displaying standard Byzantine
features. The setting is a cave. The Virgin reclines on a mattress
while Joseph ponders the miracle of the Virgin Birth. The Christ
child appears twice, once in the manger, and once being bathed
by midwives. Over the hill, angels and the star announce the
birth to the shepherds.
The Journey of the Magi, in the fourth lunette, to the right
of the entry axis. The Magi appear riding spirited horses, following
the star; and The Magi before Herod, in which they are shown
carrying gifts and dressed as priests, before an enthroned Herod.
Herod Inquiring of the Priests and Scribes, in the fifth lunette,
partially preserved. Troubled, Herod searches for the newborn
King of the Jews.
The Return of the Magi to the East, in the east lunette. This
is only partially preserved, showing a rider on a rearing horse.
The Flight into Egypt, in the south lunette of the seventh bay,
partially damaged. According to tradition, while fleeing from
the wrath of Herod, the Holy Family passed the city of Sotinen
in Egypt, whereupon the city's 365 pagan idols were destroyed,
leading to the conversion of the population. Statues are shown
taking flying leaps from their pedestals. The Byzantines believed
that pagan statues were animated by demons, which may explain
The Massacre of the Innocents, in the south lunette of the sixth
bay. In an attempt to remove his potential rival, Christ, Herod
orders the massacre, and his soldiers set out in pursuit of
innocent Jewish children.
The Soldiers Slaying the Children, in the west lunette of the
sixth bay. The narrative focuses on details to represent the
The Mothers Mourning Their Children, in the west lunette of
the fifth bay. The evocative vignettes convey the emotion of
the scene. Grief is shown in women's gestures and expressions
as they hold their slain and dismembered offspring.
The Flight of Elizabeth and John, in the fourth lunette. With
a soldier in hot pursuit, his sword raised, Elizabeth and her
son, the future John the Baptist, escape miraculously when a
mountain opens up to hide them.
Joseph Dreaming, in the second lunette, north of the entrance.
An angel informs him in a dream that it is safe to return to
Palestine. This is followed by The Return of the Holy Family
from Egypt. Joseph carries the infant Christ piggyback as they
return to Nazareth. The city fills the right side of the lunette.
Christ Taken to Jerusalem for Passover, in the first lunette.
The walled city of Jerusalem fills one side of the space; in
the center, Joseph leads the family. Christ appears as an adolescent
in a gold robe.
As with the life of the Virgin, this cycle appears unresolved,
ending with a transition that leads directly to the cycle of
The Outer Narthex: Cycle of Christ's Ministry
The cycle begins in the domical vault of the first bay and concludes
in the south bay of the inner narthex. The story is taken up
directly from the previous narrative. As in the inner narthex,
the narratives are sometimes contorted to fit the domical vaults.
Normally two different episodes appear in each vault.
Christ among the Doctors, in the domical vault of the first
bay, largely destroyed. On the north side are the steps of the
synthronon, the seat for the priests in the Temple. The lower
portion of Christ's gold robe is preserved to one side.
John the Baptist Bearing Witness of Christ. The story of John
the Baptist begins in the south half of the vault in the first
bay. The emaciated legs and camelhair garment of the Baptist
can be discerned on the riverbank in the southwest corner. In
a vignette, children wrestle on the riverbank.
John the Baptist Bearing Witness of Christ, in the second domical
vault is circular. On the north side, John the Baptist gestures
toward Christ and testifies to his divinity, saying "This was
He of whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred before
me: for He was before me." In a detail, a heron attacks a snake,
perhaps symbolizing the overcoming of sin through baptism.
The Temptation of Christ, in the southern half of the second
vault, shows four episodes of Christ being confronted by the
Devil. (1) the Devil challenges Christ to prove his divinity
by changing the stones into bread. (2) Christ is offered the
kingdoms of the world if he will worship the Devil; the kingdoms
are represented in a small, fortified enclosure. (3) the Devil
takes Christ to the mountaintop to show him the kingdoms, (4)
Christ stands on the pinnacle of the Temple, where the Devil
asks him to prove his divinity by casting himself down unharmed.
The Miracle at Cana, in the third vault, damaged. On the north
side are episodes from the wedding at Cana, although the main
scene of banqueting has been lost. In the northeast corner is
the miracle of the transformation of water into wine. Workers
fill large pithoi with water. Christ, accompanied by the Virgin,
Peter, and John, gestures toward the pithoi as the host offers
him a tumbler, apparently unaware of the miracle that has just
The Multiplication of Loaves, in the south half of the same
vault are episodes from the Miraculous Feeding of the Five Thousand.
In the eastern corner, Christ blesses the five loaves and, breaking
them, gives them to two disciples to distribute to the multitude.
After the meal, the remaining fragments fill twelve baskets,
which appear in the southwest corner.
Set on the main axis of the building, the Miracle at Cana and
Multiplication of Loaves are given special prominence. Here,
the theme of Incarnation is expressed in spatial terms, with
numerous references to the Virgin as "Container of the Uncontainable."
This appears in the scenes of the Miracle at Cana and the Multiplication
of the Loaves. In both, containment is expressed by large vessels,
pithoi of wine and baskets of bread, that fill the pendentives.
Bread and wine, symbolizing the body and blood of Christ, are
inside containers, powerfully juxtaposed against the image of
the Virgin as Container of the Uncontainable. Bread and wine
are also the elements of the Eucharist, representing Christ's
sacrifice for the redemption of man's sins. These images begin
what we might call the liturgical axis of the building, leading
from the main entrance to the altar, where the Eucharist was
administered as the culmination of worship.
Christ Healing a Leper. The mosaics of the next two vaults are
almost entirely lost. In the fourth bay, however, one can discern
the lower portions of Christ confronting a spotty-legged leper.
Christ Healing the Paralytic at the Pool of Bethesda, in the
large domical vault at the southwest corner, originally contained
eight scenes of Christ's healing miracles, of which significant
portions of three remain. In two related episodes in the northeast
corner, the paralytic sits stiffly in bed; miraculously cured,
he carries the bed frame on his back.
Christ Healing the Paralytic at Capernaum, in the southwest
corner of the same vault. Christ addresses the paralytic, who
is richly outfitted in bed and accompanied by four bearers.
Christ and the Samaritan Woman at the Well, In the northwestern
pendentive of the same vault. Other scenes in this vault are
preserved only in fragments.
Only small fragments remain of the mosaics in the large domical
vault in the seventh bay, at the entrance to the parecclesion.
At the south side the scene may be identified as Christ Calling
Zacchaeus. As Christ passed through Jericho, the publican Zacchaeus
climbed a tree in order to see him.
From the final bay of the exonarthex, the visitor passes through
the north door into the south domed bay of the inner narthex,
where the cycle of the Ministry concludes with eight miracle
Christ Healing a Blind and Dumb Man, in the southwest pendentive.
Christ, standing with St. Peter, gestures toward the afflicted
man, who points toward his eyes.
Christ Healing Two Blind Men, in the northwest pendentive. Accompanied
by two apostles, Christ gestures toward two seated sightless
Christ Healing Peter's Mother-in-Law, in the northeast pendentive.
She is seated in bed, while Peter stands to her side, and Christ
grasps her by the wrist.
Christ Healing the Woman with the Issue of Blood, in the southeast
pendentive. The afflicted woman lies prostrate on the ground,
touching the hem of Christ's garment, as he turns to address
Christ Healing the Man with the Withered Hand, on the eastern
side of the southernmost arch. The man holds his deformed arm
toward Christ, who gestures toward him.
Christ Healing a Leper, on the western side of the same arch.
The latter wears a loincloth and is recognizable by his spots.
The figure of Christ is missing except for his feet.
Christ Healing a Multitude, in the west wall of the bay. Christ,
accompanied by apostles, addresses a group that includes three
seated men: a blind cripple with a hand crutch, a blind man,
and another with a distended tumor. Behind them, a woman presents
her child with deformed legs; another woman and child appear
behind her. In the group of standing figures to the right are
a crippled man, a blind woman, and a woman leaning on a stick.
The narrative cycle concludes in the inner narthex beneath the
dome containing the early ancestors of Christ, which we may
also regard as the beginning of the successive cycles. The narrative
cycles have, in effect, come full circle, emphasizing the divine
plan of salvation. on the west wall of the bay
Prefigurations of the Virgin and Themes of Resurrection and
Like the narthexes, the program of the parecclesion is divided
between the Virgin and Christ. Here, however, the overriding
theme is Salvation, befitting a funeral chapel.
The western domed bay is devoted to the Virgin; the upper walls
represent Old Testament prefigurations of the Virgin, emphasizing
her role in Salvation.
The eastern bay is devoted to the Last Judgment.
The complex program of the chapel culminates in the conch of
the apse, where the Anastasis (Harrowing of Hell) is represented,
flanked by scenes of resurrection.
The Virgin and Child and Attendant Angels, in the western dome.
The Virgin appears as the Queen of Heaven at the apex of the
dome. Within the dome's segments are twelve angels, who form
a sort of guard of honor, wearing brightly colored costumes
of the Byzantine court. This frescoed dome is subdivided with
ribs providing the flatter surfaces more suitable for fresco.
The Four Hymnographers, in the pendentives below the dome. These
are, Byzantine poets noted for their hymns honoring the Virgin.
John of Damascus, in the northeast pendentive, is the most famous,
a theologian active in the eighth century. He is identified
by his turban and is depicted writing the Idiomela for the funeral
Kosmas the Poet, in the southeast pendentive, a student of John
of Damascus, who is shown with an uninscribed book in his lap.
Joseph the Poet, in the southwest pendentive, holding a scroll
on which he writes his Canon for the Akathistos Hymn, an addition
to the most important Byzantine hymn honoring the Virgin. The
verses connect Joseph to the Old Testament scenes depicted below
Theophanes Graptos, in the northwest pendentive, a ninth-century
writer who was a monk at the Chora. He is shown writing verses
from the funeral service, which refer to the adjacent scene
of Jacob's Ladder and to the role of the Virgin in salvation.
Jacob Wrestling with the Angel and Jacob's Ladder, in the lunette
at the west end of the north wall. In the first, he wrestles
with the angel, during which he sees God face to face. In the
second, he dreams of the ladder leading to heaven, with angels
ascending and descending, and the Lord standing upon it. Jacob's
Ladder was regarded as a prefiguration of the Virgin, and accordingly
the ladder is depicted leading to an image of the Virgin and
The Lord Appears to Moses Before the Burning Bush, on the opposite
side of the lunette. Realizing he is standing on holy ground,
Moses Removes His Sandals. On the adjacent arch is a third episode,
Moses Hides His Face, "for he was afraid to look upon God."
The Burning Bush, which burned without being consumed, was regarded
as a metaphor for the Virgin, signifying the Virgin Birth.
Scenes from The Dedication of Solomon's Temple, on the south
wall of the parecclesion.
The Bearing of the Ark of the Covenant to the new Temple, in
the west side of the second lunette. Typologically the Ark and
the Virgin are related, and the scenes parallel those of the
Virgin's presentation and life in the Temple, depicted in the
inner narthex; both Virgin and Ark are containers of God.
Solomon and All of Israel, in the east half of the first lunette.
Solomon, who is richly dressed as a Byzantine emperor, leads
the elders of Israel.
The Installation of the Ark in the Holy of Holies, on the west
side of the same lunette. It shows the Ark being placed in the
sanctuary of the Temple. Light radiates from the sky above to
show that the "glory of the Lord" has filled the Temple.
The Prophesy of Isaiah concerning the army of Sennacherib, who
was unable to enter the walled city of Jerusalem, on the southern
side of the western arch. Isaiah holds a scroll and gestures
toward The Angel Smiting the Assyrians before Jerusalem. Between
the prophet's outstretched hand and the angel, the gate of Jerusalem
is topped by an image of the Virgin in the tympanum. Here, the
inviolate city is a symbol of the Virgin. Although the prophesy
of Isaiah was not read on the Virgin's feast days, the inclusion
of this scene may be related to Theodore Metochites' personal
devotion to the Archangel Michael.
Completing the cycle of Old Testament prefigurations of the
Virgin is a somewhat unusual scene of Three Priests before the
Altar. Originally identified as Aaron and his sons, the fragmentary
inscription in fact refers to the burnt offering to be made
on the eighth day on the altar, from the vision of Ezekiel.
The altar of sacrifice symbolizes the Virgin, and the sacrifice
refers to Christ's sacrifice. The priests are shown carrying
small boxes and a censer. Both formally and typologically they
refer to the Three Magi, whose cycle terminated in the adjacent
seventh bay of the outer narthex.
The Souls of the Blessed in the Hand of God (fragmentary), an
unusual scene, in the crown of the western arch extending onto
the western tympanum. Following the Book of Wisdom (of Solomon),
"the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God, and the
tortures of death shall not touch them."
The Last Judgment, in the eastern bay of the parecclesion, showing
Christ's triumph over death and redemption of the righteous,
a fitting subject for a funeral chapel. A structural crack runs
through the dome and has disfigured much of the fresco. Note
that Christ's mandorla is now egg-shaped when it should be circular.
Appearing at the Second Coming, Christ is seated on a rainbow,
surrounded by a mandorla of light, as judge of mankind. Flanking
Christ stand the Virgin and John the Baptist who intercede on
behalf of mankind. The twelve apostles are enthroned in symmetrical
groups either side. Choirs of the Elect appear on four clouds
that form a semi-circle on the northeast and western parts of
the vault. Directly below Christ the Judge are the Hetoimasia
and the Weighing of Souls. The first is the prepared throne
of "justice and judgment" mentioned in Psalms. Either side,
Adam and Eve prostrate themselves in prayer. Directly below
the throne hangs a scale, on which the angels weigh the deeds
of souls. The Fiery Stream and the Lake of Fire descends from
the left foot of Christ and runs into the southeast pendentive.
The Land and Sea Giving up Their Dead, in the southwest pendentive
is. As angels blow their trumpets, bodies rise from their coffins
and the sea.
An Angel and a Soul, in the northwest pendentive. Uniquely in
this composition, an angel presents a soul for judgment. It
has been suggested that this represents St. Michael presenting
the soul of Theodore Metochites for judgment.
Lazarus the Beggar in Abraham's Bosom, in the northeast pendentive,
surrounded by the souls of the blessed. The scene is set in
The Rich Man in Hell is set opposite Lazarus, in the southeast
pendentive, below the fiery stream. Seated, he turns toward
Lazarus to beg for water.
The Torments of the Damned, on the south wall, on the eastern
half of the lunette adjacent to the Rich Man in Hell. Divided
into four compartments, the monochrome figures suffer a variety
of tortures: the Gnashing of the Teeth (badly flaked), the Outer
Darkness, the Worm that Sleepeth Not, and the Unquenchable Fire.
The Entry of the Elect into Paradise, in the north lunette of
the east bay, the final episode in the Last Judgment composition.
The scene is divided into two halves with the gate of paradise
in the center. From the left a mixed group of figures, representing
different categories of the elect, is led by St. Peter, who
applies his keys to the gate. On the right, paradise is white
and vegetated. The Good Thief, wearing a loincloth and carrying
his cross, welcomes the elect. He gestures toward the Virgin.
The Raising of the Widow's Son, on the north side within the
arch each side of the apse. The funeral cortège has left
the city of Nain with four men carrying the body on a bier.
The widow of Nain's son is wrapped in a winding-sheet and sits
up as Christ gestures toward him.
The Raising of the Daughter of Jairus, on the south side of
the same arch. The scene is set indoors, with the deceased on
a bed. Christ grasps the girl by the wrist and raises her to
a sitting position, and back to life, watched by apostles and
The Anastasis, or Resurrection, in the conch of the apse, one
of the most impressive works of Late Byzantine painting. It
depicts ChristÕs triumph over death through his descent into
hell to redeem the souls of the righteous of the Old Testament
who, led by John the Baptist, gather before rocks each side.
He grasps Adam and Eve by their wrists and lifts them from their
sarcophagi. Beneath him lies Satan bound and gagged.
The Virgin Eleousa, on the lower wall to the right side of the
apse. She must have been paired with a fresco of Christ on the
opposite side, now lost. The type of representation is known
as the Compassionate Virgin. She holds the Christ child on outstretched
arms, as though making an offering, and sadly presses her cheek
The Church Fathers appear in the apse in liturgical dress. The
left-hand figure has been lost, but the others may be identified
as Saints Athanasios, John Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory the Theologian,
and Cyril of Alexandria.
to resources main
briefing | image
index | resources
home page | site
image index | site resources
media center for art history and archaeology
| columbia university