reading this text, note the comparisons with the Temple of Jerusalem,
where God lives to dwell; also Prokopios indicates that there were
structural problems evident while the building is under construction.
Prokopios, De aedif. I, i, 23 ff: The Emperor, disregarding all considerations
of expense, hastened to begin construction and raised craftsmen from
the whole world. It was Anthemius of Tralles, the most learned man
in the discipline called engineering (mêchanikê), not
only of all his contemporaries, but also as compared to those who
had lived long before him, that ministered to the Emperor's zeal by
regulating the work of the builders and preparing in advance designs
of what was going to be built. He had as partner another engineer
(mêchanopoios) called Isidore, a native of Miletus, who was
intelligent in all respects and worthy to serve the Emperor Justinian....
So the church has been made a spectacle of great beauty, stupendous
to those who see it and altogether incredible to those who hear of
it....Its breadth and length have been so fittingly proportioned that
it may without impropriety be described as being both very long and
extremely broad. And it boasts of an ineffable beauty, for it subtly
combines its mass with the harmony of its proportions, having neither
any excess nor any deficiency, inasmuch as it is more pompous than
ordinary [buildings] and considerably more decorous than those which
are huge beyond measure; and it abounds exceedingly in gleaming sunlight.
You might say that the [interior] space is not illuminated by the
sun from the outside, but that the radiance is generated within, so
great an abundance of light bathes this shrine all round.
The face of
the church-this would be the part turned towards the rising sun,
intended for the celebration of God's mysteries-has been wrought
in the following fashion. A construction of masonry rises from the
ground, not in a straight line, but gradually drawing back from
its sides and receding in the middle, so as to describe a semi-circular
shape which is called a half-cylinder by specialists, and this towers
to a precipitous height. The extremity (huperbolê) of this
structure terminates in the fourth part of a sphere,92 and above
it another crescent-shaped form (mênoides) 93 is lifted up
by the adjoining parts of the building, wonderful in its beauty
yet altogether terrifying by the apparent precariousness of its
composition. For it seems somehow not to be raised in a firm manner,
but to soar aloft to the peril of those who are there; and yet,
it is supported with quite extraordinary firmness and security.
On either side of these [elements] columns are placed on the ground,
and these, too, do not stand in a straight line, but retreat inward
in a half-circle as if making way for one another in a dance,94
and above them is suspended a crescent-shaped form. Opposite the
eastern wall is another one that contains the entrances, and on
either side of the latter both the columns and the superstructure
stand in a half-circle, in a manner very similar to what has been
described. In the middle of the church there rise four man-made
eminences which are called piers (pessoi), two on the north and
two on the south, opposite and equal to one another, each pair having
between them exactly four columns. The eminences are built to a
great height and are composed of big stones, carefully selected
and skillfully fitted together by the masons. As you see them, you
could suppose them to be precipitous mountain peaks. Upon these
are placed four arches so as to form a square, their ends coming
together in pairs and made fast at the summit of those piers, while
the rest of them rises to an immense height. Two of the arches,
namely those facing the rising and the setting sun, are suspended
over empty air, while the others have beneath them some kind of
structure (oikodomia) and rather tall95columns.
the arches the construction rises in a circle: it is through this
that the first light of day always smiles. Indeed, I believe it towers
above the whole earth, and the structure has gaps at short intervals,96being intentionally interrupted so that the openings corresponding
to the divisions in the masonry are channels of constant illumination.
And since the arches are joined together on a square plan, the intervening
construction assumes the form of four triangles.97 The bottom end
of each triangle, being pressed together by the conjunction of the
arches, causes the lower angle to be acute, but as it rises it becomes
wider by the intervening space and terminates in the arc of a circle,
which it supports, and forms the remaining [two] angles at that level.
Rising above this circle is an enormous spherical dome which makes
the building exceptionally beautiful. It seems not to be founded on
solid masonry, but to be suspended from heaven by that golden chain98
and so cover the space.
of these elements, marvellously fitted together in mid-air, suspended
from one another and reposing only on the parts adjacent to them,
produce a unified and most remarkable harmony in the work, and yet
do not allow the spectators to rest their gaze upon any one of them
for a length of time, but each detail readily draws and attracts the
eye to itself. Thus the vision constantly shifts round, and the beholders
are quite unable to select any particular element which they might
admire more than all the others. No matter how much they concentrate
their attention on this side and that, and examine everything with
contracted eyebrows, they are unable to understand the craftsmanship
and always depart from there amazed by the perplexing spectacle. So
much, then, for this.
It was by means of many devices that the Emperor Justinian and the
engineers Anthemius and Isidore gave stability to the church, suspended
as it is in mid-air. Most of these are beyond my comprehension and
I find it impossible to express them in words; one device only I shall
describe here in order to demonstrate the strength of the whole work.
It is as follows: The piers which I have just mentioned are not built
like ordinary masonry, but in this fashion. Courses of stone have
been laid in a four-square shape99; they are hard by nature, but worked
smooth, and those of them that were intended to form the lateral projections
of the piers have been cut at an angle, while the ones that were assigned
an intermediary position have been made rectangular. These were joined
together not with lime which they call unslaked, nor with asphalt,
the pride of Semiramis in Babylon, nor with any other similar substance,
but with lead poured into the interstices, which has penetrated into
all the intervening spaces and having hardened in the joints, binds
the stones together.100 This, then, was built in the above manner;
but let us now proceed to the remaining parts of the church.
The entire ceiling has been overlaid with pure gold which combines
beauty with ostentation, yet the refulgence from the marble prevails,
vying as it does with that of the gold. There are two colonnades (stoai),
one on each side, not separated from the church by any structural
element, but actually adding to the measure of its width and extending
to its whole length, while their height is less than that of the building.
They, too, have a vaulted ceiling (orophêtholos) adorned with
of these colonnades is assigned to men for their devotions, while
the other is used by women for the same purpose. However, there is
no difference or any distinction between the two, but their very equality
and similarity contribute to the beauty and adornment of the church.
But who could describe the galleries (huperôa) of the women's
part (gunaikônitis) or enumerate the many colonnades and columned
courts (peristuloi aulai) by means of which the church is encompassed?
Who could recount the beauty of the columns and the marbles with which
the church is adorned? One might imagine that one has chanced upon
a meadow in full bloom. For one would surely marvel at the purple
hue of some, the green of others, at those on which the crimson blooms,
at those that flash with white, at those, too, which Nature, like
a painter, has varied with the most contrasting colors. Whenever one
goes to this church to pray, one understands immediately that this
work has been fashioned not by human power or skill, but by the influence
of God. And so the visitor's mind is lifted up to God and floats aloft,
thinking that He cannot be far away, but must love to dwell in this
place which He himself has chosen.... And as for the treasure of this
church-the [vessels of] gold and silver and precious stones which
the Emperor Justinian has dedicated here-it is impossible to give
an exact account of all of them. I shall allow my readers to form
an estimate by means of a single example. That part of the church
which is especially sacred and accessible to priests only-it is called
the sanctuary (thusiastêrion)-exhibits forty thousand pounds
So the church of Constantinople, which men are wont to call the Great
Church ...has been wrought in this fashion by the Emperor Justinian.
It was not by money alone that the emperor built it, but with toil
of the mind and the other qualities of the soul, as I am about to
relate. One of the arches that I have just mentioned (engineers call
them lôroi),101 namely the one to the east, had already been
raised on either side, but had not been completed in the middle, and
was still waiting. The piers on top of which the structure was being
built, unable to bear the mass that was pressing down on them, somehow
or other suddenly started to break away and seemed to be on the point
of collapsing. So the staff of Anthemius and Isidore, terrified at
what had happened and having lost confidence in their skill, referred
the matter to the emperor. And the emperor, impelled by I know not
what, but, I suppose, by God (since he is not an engineer), immediately
commanded them to complete the curve of that arch. "For," he said,
"when it is supported by itself, it will no longer need the piers
(pessoi) beneath it."102 If this story were unwitnessed, I am sure
it would seem to be a piece of flattery and altogether incredible,
but since there exist many witnesses of what happened at that time,
we need not be reluctant to tell the rest of the story. So the craftsmen
carried out the orders, and he entire arch was securely suspended,
thus confirming by experiment the validity of his idea. This, then,
was finished in the above manner; but in the case of the other arches,
namely those turned toward the south and the north, the following
chanced to happen. The so called lôroi, swelled out by the masonry
of the church,103 were already in the air, but everything beneath
them was suffering under their weight and the columns that are there
were shedding little flakes as if being scraped.104 Once again the
engineers became dispirited by what had happened and reported their
plight to the emperor. And once again the emperor solved the problem
by the following device. He commanded that the extremities of the
parts that has suffered, namely what came in contact with the arches,
should be immediately removed and inserted much later, at such time
when the moisture of the masonry had sufficiently abated. They followed
these precepts, and thereafter the structure survived secure. From
this work the emperor enjoys a kind of added testimonial.
92 The semidome of the apse.
93 The eastern semidome.
94 Prokopios is here referring to the colonnades of the exedras.
95 I have adopted here the reading of cod. Vaticanus 1065, kionas
makrous in preference to kionas mikrous ("small columns") as printed
in the Teubner and Loeb editions. The original form of the north and
south tympana is not to that of the great west window which is divided
by tall mullions.
96 The windows of the dome.
97 The pendentives of the dome.
98 Iliad, VIII, 19.
99 Strictly speaking, the main piers are not rectangular (see plan).
100 Lead, of course, was laid in sheets, not poured.
101 From Lat. lorum meaning a thong. The lôros was also the
name of a long ceremonial scarf worn my consuls and emperors.
102 This passage is not altogether clear. The meaning, I believe,
is not, of course, that the arch, once completed, will not longer
need the piers, but rather that it will not be making such heaving
demands on the piers. In the Loeb ed. (p.31) it is suggested that
Prokopios is using the term pessoi in two different senses: (1) 'piers,'
(2) the props of the wooden centering. I find it difficult to accept
this explanation. There can be no doubt that the eastern arch was
built on a centering; what happened, however, is that as the voussoirs
were being laid, the piers started tilting laterally. Justinian would
have been guilty of a non sequitur if he had said that the arch, when
completed, would not have needed the centering any longer: no arch
103 I have given a literal translation of this somewhat obscure phrase.
The 'swelling' in question may refer to the pendentives which, naturally,
would have exerted added weight on the arches. Prokopios seems to
be saying that the north and south tympana were erected simultaneously
with the arches and that the latter, being still damp and therefore
in the process of settling, weighed down heavily on the underlying
104 This is an accurate description of the behavior of marble when
subjected to great pressure.
Copyright: Cyril A. Mango, The Art of the Byzantine Empire, 3121453:
Sources and Documents, Englewood Cliffs, 1972.